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海运提单的风险及防范措施

2012-02-17 20:09 作者: 来源: 本站 浏览: 1,154 次 我要评论(13条) 字号:

摘要: 1990年,孟加拉遭受水灾,该国通过港商与中国粮油进出口公司上海公司签订了一份8千吨大米的买卖合同,C.I.F价约为170万美元。信用证开出后,港商将全套制作精美的单证在日本一家银行顺利结汇,提单由巴西一家班轮公司签发,承运船名为“罗里达”号。然而,“罗里达”...

1990年,孟加拉遭受水灾,该国通过港商与中国粮油进出口公司上海公司签订了一份8千吨大米的买卖合同,C.I.F价约为170万美元。信用证开出后,港商将全套制作精美的单证在日本一家银行顺利结汇,提单由巴西一家班轮公司签发,承运船名为“罗里达”号。然而,“罗里达”号却一直未往孟加拉卸货。购销合同书范本 后经调查发现,其实在签单日该船尚在欧洲营运。结果,孟加拉政府自认倒霉――付出170万美元加上一大笔律师费。

有人要问,银行在结汇时不是要审单吗?国际商会UCP400规定,银行审查文件时,只要文件表面相符,就须放款。换言之,对文件诈骗,银行不承担任何责任。在英国,银行即便明知文件是虚拟假的,也无权拒付。该规定源自1983年的“UnitedcityMerchantsV.RoyalBankofCanada”。当时,在该案中,当受益人到银行结汇时,  mt是什么意思银行发现实际装运期较信用证规定的装运期晚,因而拒付。但第二天,同样单证议付时却发现提单日期已符合L/C的装运期,银行以文件诈骗为由,确认拒付,双方随即对簿公堂。贵族院认为上述情况有两种可能:1.打字时,将日期错打;2.船长签错。贵族院最后判定,除非银行能证明受骗人参与欺诈,否则银行无权拒付。

此判例对打击欺诈极为不利。然而,   扣款通知单    从另一角度看,贵族院也无可厚非。但凡金融中心的形成,与银行资信息息相关。如果银行动辄拒付,是不利于金融稳定的。

船东欺诈

卖方将货物装上船后,货物的风险自越过船舷开始就移转给买方。   mou  如果船东是见利忘义之徒,买方很可能面临第二种欺诈――船东欺诈。

有时,C.I.F买方会突然收到船东的指示,要求买方支付一笔钱款以供加燃油之用,否则,要将船开到中东将货贱卖。碰到这种情况,    oem是什么意思  买方左右为难,如果给,怕是个无底洞;如果不给,又怕船东恼羞成怒,真将货卖掉而血本无归。更有甚者,一些船东在港装完货后,就销声匿迹。据ICC统计,最高峰时,一个月中有4船货在黎巴嫩失踪。载货船大都是旧船,货被卖掉后,船或被拆掉,或被改名。现在,船公司大多是单船公司,破产是没有任何后顾之忧的。

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